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Comparison of Intravenous Ketorolac Tomethamine and Morphine Sulfate in the Treatment, of Post-operative Pain

C.R.Brown, J.E. Moodie, V.M. Wild, L.J. Bynum: Comparison of Intravenous Ketorolac Tomethamine and Morphine Sulfate in the Treatment, of Post-operative Pain. Pharmacotherapy Volume 10, Number 6, Part 2, 1990. page 1165.

Abstract
This study compared the efficacy and safety of ketorolac tromethamine and morphine sulfate in alleviating moderate or severe pain immediately after major surgery. One hundred twenty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive single intravenous injections of ketorolac 10 mg, ketorolac 30 mg, morphine 2 mg, or morphine 4 mg; patients could receive a second dose 15 minutes thereafter, upon request, and most received both available doses. Analgesic efficacy was measured by interviewing patients and assessing pain intensity and pain relief for 6 hours after the first medication administration. The two drugs showed a similar onset of action, peaking 1 hour after administration. When placed in order of descending efficacy, the mean scores for most efficacy measures fell into the following sequence: ketorolac 30 mg, ketorolac 10 mg, morphine 4 mg, and morphine 2 mg. There were no statistically significant differences among the two ketorolac doses and the high dose of morphine, but all three of these treatments were significantly superior to the low morphine dose. One patient who took morphine 4 mg withdrew because of drowsiness; other common adverse events reported included nausea, vomiting, somnolence, and dyspepsia. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of adverse events among the treatment groups. Intravenous ketorolac is effective for the treatment of postoperative pain.